Hesperian Health Guides

Magungunan guba

Activated charcoal


Activated charcoal wata irin hoda ce da ake maganin wasu daga cikin gubobi da aka hadiya, kamar wasu daga cikin magungunan kashe ƙwari dana kashe ciyayi. Activated charcoal yana hana jiki ya zuƙe gubar, sabodahaka a bada shi da hanzari bayan an ci ko an sha guba. Activated charcoal baya cutarwa, sabodahaka a bada shi idan ana tunanin an ci ko an sha guba koda kuwa babu tabbas.

Idan baka da activated charcoal, zaka iya amfani da hodar gawayin ƙonannen itace ko ƙonannen biredi ko kuma tortilla. Cakuda cikin cokalin shanshayi 1 da na hodar gawayi da ruwan ɗumi a cikin babban mazibi. Wannan bai kai kyan activated charcoal ba, amma dai zai yi aiki.

Kada ayi amfani da gawayin briquettes-yana da guba!

Activated charcoal baya taimakawa ga gubar:

  • sinadarai masu zaizayewa ko ƙonawa (radadi) (irin su ammonia, batiri, acids, sinadarin wanke magudanan ruwa, sodar wanki, lye)
  • dangogin gurɓataccen man fetir (irinsu fetir, kananzir, turpentine, sinadarin tsinka fenti, phenol, carbolic acid, kafir, man pine)
  • sinadarin cyanide (wanda ake amfani da shi a aikin ma’adanai, aikin kamfani, cire gashin fatun dabbobi, gubar bera)
  • ethanol
  • sinadarin iron (irinsu ƙwayoyin maganin iron, multivitamins ko vitamins na masu ciki)
  • sinadarin lithium (wanda ake samu a cikin maganin warkar da cutar taɓin hankali ta bipolar)
  • sinadarin methanol (wanda ake samu a vanish (fenti marar launi), thinner (sinadarin tsinka fenti), fuel additives (sinadarin ƙara ƙarfin makamashin ƙananan motoci)
  • mineral acids (acid din cikin ma’adanai)
  • organic solvents (sinadaran da wani abu ke iya narkewa a cikinsu): (irin wanda ake samu a cikin sinadarin tsinka fenti, glue solvent (sinadarin narkarda gam), nail polish remover (sinadarin cire hasken jikin ƙusa,spot removers (sinadaran fitar da datti a jikin kaya)

Green-effects.png Illolin (sa)
Zai iya haifarda baƙin bayan gida, amai, cushewar ciki ko kuma gudawa.

Yadda ake amfani da shi

A bayar da shi da cikakken kufi ɗaya na ruwa a cikin hanzari bayan an ci ko sha guba. Za a iya bada wannan adadin bayan sa’o’i 4.
Ƙasa da shekara 1: bada g 10 zuwa 25.
Shekara 1 zuwa 12: bada g 25 zuwa 50.
Sama da shekaru 12: bada g 50.

Atropine


Ana amfani da atropine wurin warkar da gubar waɗansu daga cikin nau’ukan magungunan kashe ƙwari, ko iskar gas wadda ke cikin jijiya. Yi amfani da atropine idan bayanin dake jikin mazubin maganin kashe kwarin yace ayi amfani da shi, ko kuma bayanin ya ce maganin kashe ƙwarin nau’in cholinesterase inhibitor ne. Adadin da ake bukata na atropine ya dogara ne da tsananin gubar. Saudayawa, gubar carbamate tana buƙatar magani kaɗan akan gubar organophosphate.

Green-effects.png Illolin (sa)
Jin bacci, jiri, ciwon kai, sauyin tunani dakuma bayan gida mai tauri.

NBgrnimportant.png A lura
A sanyaya jikin mutum idan an bashi atropine.

NBgrninject.png Yadda ake amfani (da shi)

Ayi allurar sa ta fata.
Ƙasa da shekaru 2: yi allurar mg 0. 05 ga duk nauyin kg, duk minti 5 zuwa 10.
Shekaru 2 zuwa 10: yi allurar mg 1, duk mintina 5 zuwa 10.
Sama da shekara 10: yi allurar mg 2, duk minti 5 zuwa 10.

A daina allura idan fata tayi jaja-jaja kuma ta bushe, kuma baƙin cikin ido ya ƙara girma. Idan gubar ta tsananta, a ninka adadin atropine ɗin da aka ambata a sama.

Deferoxamine


Deferoxamine yana taimakawa wurin magance gubar sinadarin iron ta hanyar cire sinadarin iron daga cikin jini.

Green-effects.png Illolin (sa)
Gani garara-garara dakuma canjawar tunani.

NBgrnimportant.png A lura
Kada a bawa wanda yake ciwon ƙoda ko kuma idan mutumin baya iya fitsari. Kada a bawa yara ‘yan ƙasa da shekara 3.

NBgrninject.png Yadda ake amfani (da shi)

Ayi allurar a hankali ta cikin fata. Yi allurar mg 50 ga dukkan nauyin kg duk sa’o’i 6. Kada ayi allurar sama da g 6 a rana. Idan baza a iya auna nauyin mutumin ba a yi la’akari da shekaru.
Ƙasa da shekara 5: Yi allurar mg 550 a hankali, duk bayan sa’o’i shida, na rana 1 (sau 4).
Shekaru 5 zuwa 12: Yi allurar mg 1000 a hankali, duk bayan sa’o’i shida, na rana 1 (sau 4).
Sama da shekaru 12: Yi allurar a hankali duk bayan sa’o’i 6 a rana: wato mg 2000 (sau 2), sannan mg 1000 (sau 2).

Acetylcysteine


A bada acetylcysteine a cikin gaggawa bayan an sha acetaminophen sama da ƙa’ida. Wuce ƙa’idar acetaminophen shi ne sama da mg 7000 ga babba ko kuma sama da mg 140 ga yaro.

Acetylcysteine yana da sansana mai ƙarfi. Haɗa shi da ruwan lemo yana taimakawa mutum ya iya afani da shi.

NBgrnspoon.png Yadda ake amfani (da shi)
Domin shan acetaminophen (paracetamol) daya wuce ƙa’ida.

Bada mg 140 ga duk nauyin kg 1 ta baka. A jira sa’o’i 4 sannan a bada mg 70 ga duk nauyin kg 1 ta baka, sannan a cigaba da bada wannan adadin duk sa’o’i 4 har sau 17. Idan mutumin yayi amai a cikin sa’a 1 da shan maganin, a sake bada adadin maganin.

Naloxone


Ana amfani da naloxone wajan magance matsalar shan nau’ukan opioids kamar su morphine, heroin, methadone, opium, oxycodone da sauran magungunan rage raɗaɗi da zogi masu ƙarfi idan aka wuce ƙa’ida. A bada naloxone har sai mutumin ya fara numfashi sosai da kansa. Maganin zai iya salamcewa, sabodahaka, ana da bukatar bada wani a cikin mintina 20 idan mutumin ya sake samun matsalar yin numfashi.

Green-effects.png Illolin (sa)
Jin amai, yin amai dakuma gumi. Matsanancin rashin jin daɗi.

NBgrninject.png Yadda ake amfani (da shi)

Ƙasa da shekara 5: yi allura mg 0.1 ga dukkan kg 1 na nauyi duk bayan mintina 2 zuwa 3 gwargwadon buƙata, amma kada a bada sama da nauyin mg 2 idan an haɗa duka.
Sama da shekaru 5: yi allurar mg ½ zuwa 2 ta tsoka. Idan ana da buƙata a maimaita adadin duk bayan mintina 2 zuwa 3, amma kada a bada sama da nauyin mg 10 idan an haɗa duka.

Sodium nitrite


Ana amfani da sodium nitrite wajan magance gubar cyanide tare da sodium thiosulfate. Dole ne ayi allurar sa ta jijiya. Kada kayi hakan har sai ka san yadda ake yi.

NBgrninject.png Yadda ake amfani (da shi)

Yi allurar sodium nitrite ta jijiya a hankali a tsahun mintina 5 zuwa 20.
Ƙasa da shekaru 12: yi allurar mg 4 zuwa 10 ga duk kg 1 na nauyi ta jijiya. Kada ayi sama da mg 300.
Sama da shekaru 12: yi allurar mg 300 ta jijiya.

Bi bayanta da allurar sodium thiosulfate. Duba ƙasa domin ganin adadin.

Sodium thiosulfate


Ana amfani da sodium thiosulfate wajan magance gubar cyanide tare da allurar sodium nitrite. Dole ayi allurar ta cikin jijiya. Zakayi hakan ne idan kasan yadda ake yi.

NBgrninject.png Yadda ake amfani (da shi)

Yi allurar sodium thiosulfate ta cikin jijiya a hankali har tsahon mintina 10.
Kasa da shekaru 12: yi allurar mg 400 ga dukkan kg 1 na nauyi ta cikin jijiya.
Sama da shekaru 12: yi allurar g 12. 5 ta cikin jijiya.